Jim Career Summary Crow Strange
Procedures that diverted resources in education, housing, and jobs away from poor black people turned ghettos and prisons into social pandemics. Americans in the North made this history. They tried to unmake it, too. Liberalism, rather than lighting the way to vanquish the darkness of the Jim Crow North gave racism new and complex places to hide.
Summary: 6 The Fire This Time
This chapter discusses how the status quo hinders the elimination of mass incarceration and how the system can be dismantled without laying the ground for a replacement.
Most Americans today believe that the diversity made possible through affirmative action is helping to reduce the amount of impact mass incarceration has on Black and brown families. Civil rights organizations campaign heavily to increase diversity in the workplace, in politics, and in the arts. Today, there are many more Black and brown faces to be found on police forces, fire departments, in schools, on television, in sports, and in entertainment. These small steps toward diversity lead people to believe that racism can be defeated. While it does help bring people of various backgrounds and ethnicities together, and help break down barriers due to ignorance, it still does not address the real issue. The massive level of inequality that exists in urban areas where Black and brown people live is still producing generations of people lost to poverty, drugs and violence.
Those who benefit from affirmative action do not necessarily want to wholly change the system. They become part of the system. Police departments across the nation have become more diverse, but they continue to wage war on the Black urban poor. This diversity can make it harder to challenge these institutions and call out racist behavior. These cosmetic changes make it even more difficult to upend the status quo.
Summary: 1 The Rebirth Of Caste
This chapter outlines the history of caste systems in the United States.
Racial caste initially appeared in America as a method of controlling labor in the new English colonies. This system then grew to be the underpinning of the agriculture economy in the Southern colonies. The Southern planter elite used their economic power to preserve this racial caste system within the Constitution of the United States. This made it easier for different forms of control to rise later. Following the Civil War, previously enslaved African Americans were granted the most freedom they had ever enjoyed, but the existing structure of racism was not as easily outlawed. Conservative whites developed a new set of laws that came to be known as Jim Crow. These laws denied African Americans access to the same facilities and opportunities as Southern whites and made it very difficult for African Americans to succeed. It was racial control in a different form.
Challenges to these laws were difficult to mount because they were in violation of federal laws and had to be tried in federal court. This was usually beyond the ability of any African American in the South at the time. This encouraged Southern states to pass many laws segregating the races in all kinds of situations. This racial caste system became known as Jim Crow.
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Analysis: 4 The Cruel Hand
To frame her discussion of the lifelong ramifications of being a part of the criminal caste, Alexander again explores how white ideas of Black Americans have, throughout history, prevented true freedom. In the wake of the Emancipation, slavery lived on, as every Black person was still considered a slave and had no way of defending themselves in the court of law. Then, under Jim Crow, though Black people were living free, white prejudice prevented them from sharing public spaces with white people, pushing back against white misperceptions, or defending themselves against white violence. The ramifications of being part of the criminal caste are surprisingly similar to many of the worst parts of slavery and Jim Crow, including being forced into unpaid labor in prison, being unable to argue about racial discrimination in courts, and being denied the markers of full citizenship and personhood, such as the ability to vote, serve on a jury, obtain a decent job, and secure a home. Alexander suggests that Black people have, for the past 400 years, existed as second-class citizens in America, not because of any inherent inferiority or illicit behavior but because they are perceived as criminals in the white imagination.
Struggle For Black Equality Analysis
Kathy J. SmithAmerican HistoryProf. Miller8 August 2011The Ongoing StrugglePrior to reading Harvard Sitkoffs Struggle for Black Equality, I felt like I had a pretty good understanding of the civil rights movement. If asked, I could recount the various events and some of the key individuals that played a significant role in the struggle. After reading Sitkoffs book and coming away with a mixed bag of feelings ranging from astonishment to shock to shame I can now say that I understand the more personal side of this epic ongoing struggle. By his own admission Sitkoff states that he set out to write …a narrative, an interpretation of the civil rights movementneither a comprehensive nor a scholarly account of the struggle.(Sitkoff,
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The New Peculiar Institution
Even as the radical era came to an end, however, Black citizens continued to vie for greater freedom, still boldly challenging centuries of anti-Black traditions.
Those most likely to violate white Southern customs were the children and grandchildren of former slaves, the newest generation since the war and the first to have no recollection of slavery and its horrors. Whites spoke disparagingly of these “new Negroes,” those who seemed less respectful, less faithful, less moral, and less carefree than their ancestors.
“They don’t sing as they used to,” one white woman from Atlanta told a Northern visitor. “Every year, it seems to me, they have been losing more and more of their carefree good humor. I sometimes feel that I don’t know them any more. hey have grown so glum and serious that I’m free to say I’m scared of them!”26
Yeah, seriously.The growing population of “new Negroes,” many of them more educated and less fearful of white authority than their predecessors, posed a significant threat to white domination in the South. In response, white Southerners devised a plan to quarantine and control them.
Laws mandated separate seating areas for Blacks on public transport, in sports stadiums, in restaurants, and in playhouses and movie theaters. City and state officials established whites-only lavatories, drinking fountains, waiting rooms, prison cells, ticket counters, and telephone booths.
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Comparison Of Martin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail And Henry David Thoreaus Civil Disobedience
The main goals for this paper is to compare and contrast the main ideas and views of the great pieces of literature: Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King and Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau. Both authors attempt to argue for the rights to disobey authority is there is social injustice. Both of these authors seem to have the same ideas and views, but Thoreau was writing during the mid 1800s during the time of slavery in America and King was writing in the 1960s during the time of severe racial discrimination in America. Because Thoreau came before King, he was a big influence for King and his writing. Although Thoreau was not the first to introduce these ideas, he may have been the first to bring it to the attention of many Americans.
Analysis: 1 The Rebirth Of Caste
Alexander describes a pattern throughout American history in which the white elite strengthens their power by exploiting Black labor and lives. History repeating itself despite the illusion of racial progress emerges as a theme of the book. Alexander examines what happens when racial caste systems collapse and finds that new systems to control and curtail Black citizens have always emerged, often using new language and rhetoric to mask old racist values. After the Emancipation, though Black Americans were free in the white imagination, Jim Crow laws in many ways replicated the same economic and social barriers that prevented Black success during slavery. By the time Jim Crow laws were widely repealed, the foundations for a new system of mass incarceration were already being laid. The people who were labeled as felons were disproportionately Black. They were disenfranchised, kept from their families, and barred from economic success much in the same way slaves were, once again upholding the nations intrenched racial caste system.
Segregation And Struggle Outside Of The South
352 Pages, 6.00 x 9.00 in, 11 black and white illustrations
Did American racism originate in the liberal North? An inquiry into the system of institutionalized racism created by Northern Jim Crow Jim Crow was not a regional sickness, it was a national cancer. Even at the high point of twentieth century liberalism in the North, Jim Crow racism hid in plain sight. Perpetuated by colorblind arguments about cultures of poverty, policies focused more on black criminality than black equality. Procedures that diverted resources in education, housing, and jobs away from poor black people turned ghettos and prisons into social pandemics. Americans in the North made this history. They tried to unmake it, too. Liberalism, rather than lighting the way to vanquish the darkness of the Jim Crow North gave racism new and complex places to hide. The twelve original essays in this anthology unveil Jim Crows many strange careers in the North. They accomplish two goals: first, they show how the Jim Crow North worked as a system to maintain social, economic, and political inequality in the nations most liberal places and second, they chronicle how activists worked to undo the legal, economic, and social inequities born of Northern Jim Crow policies, practices, and ideas. The book ultimately dispels the myth that the South was the birthplace of American racism, and presents a compelling argument that American racism actually originated in the North.
The Strange Career Of Jim Crow By C Vann Woodward
The Strange Career of Jim Crow.by C. Vann Woodward.Oxford. 155 pp. $2.50.
In The Strange Career of Jim Crow , C. Vann Woodward comes to grips with both the facts and the fictions of segregation. Woodward destroys the myth that Jim Crow laws and regulations arose with Reconstruction and are, therefore, an inseparable part of the Southerners conception of how he must order his affairs so that the races may live together. What Woodward presents is a sharp portrait of an institution that actually sprang up in the 1890s as a response to some of the problems of modern America, only to become itself one of the chief problems of American democracy. Much of what he has to say here he foreshadowed in his brilliant biography of Tom Watson, Agrarian Rebel and in his monumental Origins of the New South, which established his reputation as the leading historian of the post-Civil War South.
Curiously, Jim Crows appearance was made under the most decent auspices. Not least influential were Northern liberals anxious to placate the South, and disillusioned Southern Populists who only recently had been carrying the standard of economic reform. But most important in supplying leadership to the Jim Crow movement were the Southern Progressives. Woodward, in detailing their role, sheds light on the whole Progressive movement. North and South. Everywhere the Progressives blind spot, he shows, was the Negro.
The Strange Career Of Jim Crow Summary And Analysis
FreeBookNotes found 4 sites with book summaries or analysis of The Strange Career of Jim Crow. If there is a The Strange Career of Jim Crow SparkNotes, Shmoop guide, or Cliff Notes, you can find a link to each study guide below.
Among the summaries and analysis available for The Strange Career of Jim Crow, there are 1 Short Summary and 3 Book Reviews.
Depending on the study guide provider , the resources below will generally offer The Strange Career of Jim Crow chapter summaries, quotes, and analysis of themes, characters, and symbols.
The Role Of Slavery In The Constitution
Slavery should have been addressed during the ratification of the U.S. Constitution because they are human beings just like us. When it came time to discuss issues at the constitutional convention the idea of slavery came to be addressed only when negotiating whether or not each slave should have been counted as a person in regards to representation. The ones who felt that the black man was as much man as the white man were a part of the minority. Ultimately they settled for counting blacks as
Freehling William W The South Vs The South: How Anti
The author argues that this context and the fact that many southerners were against the Secession. Why did the Confederacy lose the civil war? the book revolve on this question and the author is giving lots of information for a better comprehension. The book is also well illustrated with numbers of photos, diagrams and maps which complement the authors writing. On the first part of the book , William W. Freehling is explaining the political context and the social structure of the US before the Secession, and so the Civil War, and the reasons that Civil War occurred. In the second part of the book , Freehling explicate the role of the white southerners who were against the Confederation and their role in the Secession Crisis.
The Strange Career Of Minstrelsy
After the Civil War, minstrelsy, the slapstick blackface performances popularized by Rice, survived as a beloved form of entertainment. Even Samuel “Mark Twain” Clemens, an avid supporter of abolition before the war, enjoyed entertaining dinner guests in the 1870s and 1880s by performing his own Jim Crow impersonations.25
That such an industry based on stereotypical images of Blacks continued to thrive through the turn of the century reveals that white American consumers preferred to imagine African Americans as jovial, gimpy buffoons rather than accept more sober and truthful representations.
By the early 1900s, the still fashionable term “Jim Crow” had evolved from a way for whites to refer to the “comic” and “simple” existence of an entire race of people into a description of the laws that controlled them. The ludicrous portrayal of a crippled Black slave came to define the elaborate system of racial segregation in place in the American South since the 1870s.So, why would such a seemingly outdated phenomenonone born during the height of the domestic slave trade, when the institution spread rapidly westward and few leaders anywhere in the country supported federally mandated abolitionsurvive decades after the Emancipation Proclamation?
The answer, like the moniker “Jim Crow,” is intimately connected to the enforcement of racial apartheid in the American South.
The Game That Can’t Be Won
Of course, not all African Americans accepted the plan for survival and advancement touted by leaders like Washington.
The younger generation of Black Southerners, many of them more educated and less fearful of white authority, rejected accommodation, even as a strategy to earn new rights. They were far more cynical than their predecessors, for they believed that by playing by white rules, Blacks would forever lose.
Success couldn’t be attained, they resolved, without provoking white resentment and inviting retaliation. The intimidation, harassment, terrorism, and violence they endured betrayed any expectations for meaningful change and convinced them that the “American Dream” didn’t apply to them.
The Strange Career Of Jim Crow By Video
More than 10 million members have subscribed, come join us. An inquiry into the system of institutionalized racism created by Northern Jim Crow Jim Crow was not a regional sickness, it was a national cancer. Even at the high point twentieth century liberalism in the North, Jim Crow racism hid in plain sight.
Analysis Of Abraham Lincoln: The Great Emancipator
Azubike MonteAfrican American Studies 09/27/12Abraham Lincoln PaperThe question is asking me to study about how Abraham Lincoln truly felt about blacks and if he should be remembered as The Great Emancipator. In this paper I will give facts and my personal opinion on what the book says and what I believe about him being a Great Emancipator. If you read through the book and get a deeper understanding on why the American Civil War started you would realize that Abraham Lincoln wanted to preserve the Norths power. The book gives credit to Lincoln by implying that he was a moral and political enigma but also saying how in a letter he wrote that if he could save the Union without freeing the slaves he would have done it implying